The largest and most visible organ of the body

Skin represents 1/6 of our body weight.
Among the skin’s main functions is protecting the body from external factors and agents such as bacteria, viruses, chemical substances, and temperatures. It maintains fluid balance and helps regulate body temperature. The condition or appearance of the skin can have a significant impact on our self-esteem.

Skin Structure

The skin is made up of three main layers and each one is made up of several sub-layers.

  • Epidermis

    It is the outermost layer that we see and touch, it protects against toxins, bacteria, and fluid loss. It is made up of sublayers of cells called keratinocytes:

    • Basal layer (stratum basalis)
    • Spinous layer (stratum spinosum)

    • Granular layer (stratum granulosum)
    • Clear layer (stratum lucidum)
    • Horny layer (stratum corneum)

  • Dermis

    It is the thick and elastic but firm layer on the subcutis, it is the wave-shaped layer that is below the epidermis. It is composed of two sublayers:

    • Lower layer (stratum reticular)
    • Upper layer (stratum papillary)

  • ColumnSubcutis or Hypodermis

    It is the innermost layer of the skin; it functions as a cushion and insulator for the body. It contains adipose cells
    (adipocytes), collagen fibers (tissue septa or limits), and blood vessels.

Common Skin Conditions

Eczema or dermatitis:

It is a term given to various types of
swelling of the skin. Also called dermatitis.

Most types cause dry, itchy skin and rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees; on the hands, and feet. Scratching the skin can make it red, increasing swelling
and itching.

Eczema is not contagious. The cause is not known, it is probably caused by genetic and environmental factors. The most common type of eczema is atopic dermatitis.


Skin irritations are caused by continuous rubbing which produces
inflammation, itching, redness, and
pain. It frequently appears in dry skin, atopic dermatitis, allergies, sun
exposure, reaction to products, and sweat, among others.


It is a chronic disease driven by an overactive immune system. Plaque psoriasis is the most common form.

While the exact cause of plaque psoriasis is unknown, we do know that the immune system and genetics play a role. Anyone can have psoriasis. About a third of cases begin in childhood. With plaque psoriasis, there are also external factors or "triggers" such as stress, which can cause symptoms to appear or worsen.


Skin exposed to long periods under the sun becomes inflamed and painful, generating a hot sensation to the touch.

It is important to use sunscreen and adopt prevention habits to prevent burns, especially in outdoor activities
and even in cloudy weather. We know that in the long run, this type of skin
damage can cause cancer.


Itchy skin is an uncomfortable and
irritating sensation that causes us to
constantly rub our skin. It is also known by the name of Pruritus; it is usually caused by dry skin and is common in older adults.

Repeated rubbing produces redness, a rough appearance, and bumps that in severe situations can bleed and become infected.

Dry Skin

Dry skin occurs when the skin loses too much water and oil. It can affect anyone.

The most common symptoms are flaking and peeling or exfoliation of the skin, itching, redness, rough appearance and cracks may also occur.